BEENLEIGH PHYSIOTHERAPY


beenleigh physiotherapy and exercise centre logo
Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre is conveniently located in the Post Office Plaza on Main Street in Beenleigh with parking spaces available. We have been a part of the community for over 20 years and are committed to your personal care and recovery, whatever your injury may be.

Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre have experienced physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psycologicalists, massage therapists and exercise physiologists on staff who provide an active approach to your care using the latest tecniques and sound advice. Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre therapists look forward to assisting you with your pain injury and treatment, management & rehabilitation.

We can create a management program for home, your gym, your local pool, or in our own studio. We even offer to come to you at your own gym to personally train you through your injury back to fitness. Please contact us to discuss options available.

Physiotherapy at Beenleigh

At Beenleigh Physiotherapy patient and physiotherapist work closely together to ensure safe and progressive loading of the injured tissue. Offering a comprehensive physio solution, we use a combination of physiotherapy treatment techniques that are specifically tailored to meet the needs and demands of the patient's body. These techniques often include, hands on manual therapy, biomechanical technique correction, targeted exercise programs, advice and education on activity modification and adjunct therapies like dry needling to promote stimulation and tissue recovery.

Pilates at Beenleigh

Clinical Pilates is an exercise process that focuses on core stability, control and strength and often assists in recovery following back, shoulder and lower limb injuries.

Exercise Physiology at Beenleigh

Exercise physiology services at Beenleigh are targeted for tactical rehabilitation. Our exercise physiology programs are designed with the end target in mind, so from the onset, we have a clear path of steps in progression, recovery and expected time frames to achieve desired outcomes.

Hydrotherapy at Beenleigh

Hydrotherapy is the use of water to relieve discomfort and promote recovery process. Hydrotherapy has the ability to soothe back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, painful or inflamed muscles and joints, rehabilitate injured limbs, provide assistance with headaches as well as promote relaxation.

Occupational Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

Occupational functional rehabilitation benefits people with, or at risk of medical conditions or those with secondary cognitive complications that have arisen and those wanting to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the most effective ways to avoid musculoskeletal problems through empowered / active rehabilitation as well as lifestyle modification strategies.

Pain Management at Beenleigh

We are an integrated healthcare provider specialising in injury management, rehabilitation and pain management for those suffering from complex musculoskeletal injuries and persistent pain presentations; as well as offering multidisciplinary treatment based services incorporating acute Physiotherapy, Psychology, Exercise Physiology, Clinical Pilates and Hydrotherapy services.

Back Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

At Beenleigh Physiotherapy we frequently treat painful back conditions such as lumbar facet joint irritation, which typically occurs during excessive bending, lifting or twisting typically from traumatic or repetitive/prolonged forces. Back pain most typically is greater on one side than the other, often associated with same side hip pain. Treatment for this type includes rest and anti-inflammatory medication followed by physiotherapy and manual treatment for muscle spasm and tightness, before commencing core stability, flexibility and mobility exercises.

Neck Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

A common injury requiring neck rehabilitation is Whiplash - an injury typically associated with motor vehicle accidents or a severe force to the neck and upper back. Rehabilitation and treatment provided for a neck injury may include the initial use of ice and/or heat and anti-inflammatory medication. Followed by physiotherapy treatment that includes active stretching exercises, local massage therapy, postural correction, ergonomic education, de-sensitising and neck strengthening.

Shoulder Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

Shoulder Rehabilitation can be offered at Beenleigh for conditions such as the Shoulder Impingement Syndrome, when shoulder pain develops from muscular tendons or bursa being “pinched” as they pass through the space formed between joints of the clavicle and scapular. Initially treatment consists of identification of aggravating activities to ensure minimization of same; whilst addressing local inflammation with ice and anti-inflammatory medication. Physiotherapy includes local massage therapy, correction of upper torso posture reduce soft tissue tightness and ergonomic training.




ADDRESS
Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre
Shop 2
Post Office Plaza
20 Main Street
Beenleigh QLD 4207

PHONE

EMAIL

OPEN
MON to FRI 8am - 5pm
SAT 8am - 12.30pm
Extended hours and Saturday appointments available - please call

Beenleigh Physio Contact Form

Full Name*

Email*

Daytime Contact Phone*

Message / Enquiry

Get Core Newsletter   



We will always try to accommodate same day appointments for clients with acute injuries that need urgent treatment and advice.

No referral required

Cancellation of Bookings Policy

Non-attendance or cancellation within a 24 hour period (unless an emergency) will attract full or partial payment of the booked session. If your appointment is rescheduled with the same provider within a 48 hour period no fee will be charged.

Please respect and value our practitioner’s time.
Other physiotherapy and rehabilitation centres near Beenleigh:
Sunnybank
538 Compton Rd, Sunnybank Hills QLD 4109
Coomera Village
Coomera Village Medical Centre 8/658 Reserve Road Qld 4209

Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre Practitioners
FEATURED THERAPISTS:
Greg Stewart - Physiotherapist at BeenleighGreg Stewart - Physiotherapist
Greg Stewart has a Degree in Biomedical Science (Hons) from Griffith University and Masters of Physiotherapy Studies (MPhtySt) from the University of Queensland. Greg is one of the senior physiotherapists at Core and in 2015 has become an executive partner of the Core Healthcare Group. Working in private practice and hospital settings since 2007, Greg has extensive clinical experience in working with common acute, chronic and complex musculoskeletal, neurological, respiratory, chronic pain and orthopaedic conditions.

Greg strongly believes in active rehabilitation with a strong focus on empowerment and self-management strategies. He utilises a lot of hands-on manual therapy and joint mobilisation techniques, often combined with dry needling and trigger point therapy. He also has a strong passion for exercise based injury rehabilitation using both gym and pilates exercise programs to achieve optimal outcomes. Greg is involved as both a presenter and injury management advisor for the Core Specialist Pain and Back Rehabilitation Programs.
Donna McCook – Physiotherapist | Exercise Physiologist at BanyoDonna McCook – Physiotherapist | Exercise Physiologist
Donna McCook has over 20 years of clinical experience in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and rehabilitation and has dual post graduate qualifications in both Physiotherapy and Exercise Physiology.

Along with acute injury management, her clinical focus is in back pain and spinal rehabilitation, and has done advanced post graduate study and research in the same area looking at muscle changes associated with injury. Through this, Donna works with a lot of pre and post operative spinal clients, and continues to have great results in stubborn back pain presentations that have failed to respond to normal treatment and care.

Donna also specialises in shoulder treatment, offering clinical diagnosis, pre and post operative care and rehabilitation, and often takes her clients through to high levels of functional fitness to return to work in heavy industries. Her background has also consisted of teaching and lecturing - nationally and internationally, having presented a range of seminars and lectures, including at international conferences over the past decade.
Drew Singleton - Consultant Pain Management Physiotherapist at Mermaid BeachDrew Singleton - Consultant Pain Management Physiotherapist Founder and Managing Director of Core Healthcare Group, and the Clinical Coordinator of Core's Occupational Rehabilitation Programs. Drew is a Consultant Pain Management Physiotherapist with fifteen years clinical experience in private practice, focusing on the management of patients presenting with complex musculoskeletal injuries, and persistent pain presentations. In his role as Managing Director of Core Healthcare Group, Drew has established and developed strategic rehabilitation partnerships with several middle and large scale organisations including WorkCover QLD, The Australian Defence Force, Toll Holdings, Wesfarmers Group, Sonic Healthcare, Australia Post, James Hardie, Medibank Health Solutions and Queensland University of Technology. Drew holds a Post-Graduate Masters of Medicine (Pain Management) and Graduate Diploma of Applied Finance; has been a Guest Lecturer at University of Queensland, and Clinical Mentor for Physiotherapy Students from Griffith University and Bond University.
Amara Thomson - Physiotherapist at Beenleigh Amara Thomson - Physiotherapist
Amara has completed her Masters of Physiotherapy Studies at the University of Queensland in 2015. Prior to this she completed a Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science majoring in Clinical Exercise Physiology. She is now an ESSA Accredited Exercise Physiologist and has two years of clinical experience within this field where she has worked as a group exercise instructor. Amara, as one of our junior staff members will be mentored by our senior team as she develops her clinical niche over the coming years, and brings a high level of clinical knowledge to our clinical group.

Areas of interest: Sports Rehab, Womens Health, Prenatal/Postnatal treatment and rehab, Chronic Work Related Injuries, Knee related Injuries, Post-orthopaedic Rehab
Lisa Fox - Exercise Physiologist at BanyoLisa Fox- Exercise Physiologist

Lisa is an ESSA accredited Exercise Physiologist having graduated from The University of Auckland in 2007 with an undergraduate degree in Sport and Exercise Science and post graduate degree in Exercise Rehabilitation. While working in private physio clinics in Auckland, Lisa became interested in all types of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular rehabilitation in addition to chronic pain conditions. She has also had extensive experience in post breast cancer rehabilitation, mainly utilising Pilates as an excellent mind-body exercise tool.

Lisa has 10 years experience teaching Clinical Pilates having trained with Polestar Pilates in NZ. This comprehensive course was specifically tailored to rehabilitation and is only available to accredited health professionals. In addition to this Pilates Instructor training, Lisa has attended numerous courses, workshops and conferences to continue and further her Pilates and Exercise Physiology training. Lisa also has a strong gym background having started gym training at 11 years of age. She has gained interest in the last few years in running and endurance sports and completed her first marathon this year.
Brian Neave- Physiotherapist at CorindaBrian Neave - Physiotherapist
Brian graduated from Brigham Young University- Hawaii (BYUH) in 2012 with a Bachelor of Science in Exercise and Sports Science. His great passion of Physiotherapy, led to the completion of his Master of Physiotherapy Studies at the University of Queensland, graduating in December of 2016.

Brian first gained exposure to physiotherapy as a volunteer in both the private sector and hospital settings, while completing his bachelor’s degree. As part of his Masters and clinical education, Brian gained hands on clinical exposure in Musculoskeletal, Neurological, Cardiorespiratory and Orthopaedic physiotherapy. It was during this time that he also worked for a large private physiotherapy group. As a result, Brian expanded his knowledge and experience with various client populations, and musculoskeletal/sports injuries. Due to his Exercise Science and sporting background, Brian’s special interests are in musculoskeletal injury management and prevention. Other areas of interest include work related injuries, knee and ankle injuries and Military Personnel rehabilitation. Brian is thrilled to begin his career with Core Healthcare Group, and share in their vision to empower his patients in overcoming their physical limitations.

In his spare time, Brian enjoys being involved in physique bodybuilding, playing sports and traveling. He is eager to serve the community by providing rehabilitative care as part of the team at Core.
Nick Dodemont - Physiotherapist at BeenleighNick Dodemont - Physiotherapist
Nick received his Bachelor of Physiotherapy from the University of Queensland graduating in 2011. He has a strong sporting background having previously worked as a physiotherapist to the Brisbane Roar FC before heading to England to work with one of the world largest football teams based in London. Prior to joining CORE in early 2014, Nick worked extensively in the construction industry field of occupational physiotherapy as the head physiotherapist on the largest construction site in Australia and one of the largest in the world.

Nick's special interests include sports rehabilitation and occupational rehabilitation. Able to work on all areas, he has a keen interest in necks, low backs and knees and their rehabilitation from initial onset through to higher level gym programs and return to sport and work.
Jon O’Dwyer - Exercise Physiologist at BeenleighJon O’Dwyer - Exercise Physiologist
Jonathan completed his combined bachelor of Human Movements (BAppliSci (HMS)) and Business Management (BBusMgmt) at QUT in 2005. He is an Accredited Exercise Physiologist (AEP) and a Tactical Strength & Conditioning Coach (TSASCA) with over 10 years of experience working in rehabilitation, athletic and normal population settings.

Jon is an integral member of Core’s injury rehabilitation team using exercise prescription to correct or re-establish proper movement patterning; utilise graded strength programs to improve load tolerances and develop work hardiness; and to teach effective lift and load strategies for industry specific work duties.

Jon also has significant experience with exercise prescription for people suffering from metabolic (such as diabetes and obesity) and musculoskeletal (including arthritis and osteoporosis) conditions.

BEENLEIGH PHYSIOTHERAPY


beenleigh physiotherapy and exercise centre logo
Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre is conveniently located in the Post Office Plaza on Main Street in Beenleigh with parking spaces available. We have been a part of the community for over 20 years and are committed to your personal care and recovery, whatever your injury may be.

Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre have experienced physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psycologicalists, massage therapists and exercise physiologists on staff who provide an active approach to your care using the latest tecniques and sound advice. Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre therapists look forward to assisting you with your pain injury and treatment, management & rehabilitation.

We can create a management program for home, your gym, your local pool, or in our own studio. We even offer to come to you at your own gym to personally train you through your injury back to fitness. Please contact us to discuss options available.

Physiotherapy at Beenleigh

At Beenleigh Physiotherapy patient and physiotherapist work closely together to ensure safe and progressive loading of the injured tissue. Offering a comprehensive physio solution, we use a combination of physiotherapy treatment techniques that are specifically tailored to meet the needs and demands of the patient's body. These techniques often include, hands on manual therapy, biomechanical technique correction, targeted exercise programs, advice and education on activity modification and adjunct therapies like dry needling to promote stimulation and tissue recovery.

Pilates at Beenleigh

Clinical Pilates is an exercise process that focuses on core stability, control and strength and often assists in recovery following back, shoulder and lower limb injuries.

Exercise Physiology at Beenleigh

Exercise physiology services at Beenleigh are targeted for tactical rehabilitation. Our exercise physiology programs are designed with the end target in mind, so from the onset, we have a clear path of steps in progression, recovery and expected time frames to achieve desired outcomes.

Hydrotherapy at Beenleigh

Hydrotherapy is the use of water to relieve discomfort and promote recovery process. Hydrotherapy has the ability to soothe back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, painful or inflamed muscles and joints, rehabilitate injured limbs, provide assistance with headaches as well as promote relaxation.

Occupational Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

Occupational functional rehabilitation benefits people with, or at risk of medical conditions or those with secondary cognitive complications that have arisen and those wanting to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the most effective ways to avoid musculoskeletal problems through empowered / active rehabilitation as well as lifestyle modification strategies.

Pain Management at Beenleigh

We are an integrated healthcare provider specialising in injury management, rehabilitation and pain management for those suffering from complex musculoskeletal injuries and persistent pain presentations; as well as offering multidisciplinary treatment based services incorporating acute Physiotherapy, Psychology, Exercise Physiology, Clinical Pilates and Hydrotherapy services.

Back Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

At Beenleigh Physiotherapy we frequently treat painful back conditions such as lumbar facet joint irritation, which typically occurs during excessive bending, lifting or twisting typically from traumatic or repetitive/prolonged forces. Back pain most typically is greater on one side than the other, often associated with same side hip pain. Treatment for this type includes rest and anti-inflammatory medication followed by physiotherapy and manual treatment for muscle spasm and tightness, before commencing core stability, flexibility and mobility exercises.

Neck Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

A common injury requiring neck rehabilitation is Whiplash - an injury typically associated with motor vehicle accidents or a severe force to the neck and upper back. Rehabilitation and treatment provided for a neck injury may include the initial use of ice and/or heat and anti-inflammatory medication. Followed by physiotherapy treatment that includes active stretching exercises, local massage therapy, postural correction, ergonomic education, de-sensitising and neck strengthening.

Shoulder Rehabilitation at Beenleigh

Shoulder Rehabilitation can be offered at Beenleigh for conditions such as the Shoulder Impingement Syndrome, when shoulder pain develops from muscular tendons or bursa being “pinched” as they pass through the space formed between joints of the clavicle and scapular. Initially treatment consists of identification of aggravating activities to ensure minimization of same; whilst addressing local inflammation with ice and anti-inflammatory medication. Physiotherapy includes local massage therapy, correction of upper torso posture reduce soft tissue tightness and ergonomic training.




ADDRESS
Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre
Shop 2
Post Office Plaza
20 Main Street
Beenleigh QLD 4207

PHONE

EMAIL

OPEN
MON to FRI 8am - 5pm
SAT 8am - 12.30pm
Extended hours and Saturday appointments available - please call

Beenleigh Physio Contact Form

Full Name*

Email*

Daytime Contact Phone*

Message / Enquiry

Get Core Newsletter   



We will always try to accommodate same day appointments for clients with acute injuries that need urgent treatment and advice.

No referral required

Cancellation of Bookings Policy

Non-attendance or cancellation within a 24 hour period (unless an emergency) will attract full or partial payment of the booked session. If your appointment is rescheduled with the same provider within a 48 hour period no fee will be charged.

Please respect and value our practitioner’s time.
Other physiotherapy and rehabilitation centres near Beenleigh:
Sunnybank
538 Compton Rd, Sunnybank Hills QLD 4109
Coomera Village
Coomera Village Medical Centre 8/658 Reserve Road Qld 4209

Beenleigh Physiotherapy Centre Practitioners
FEATURED THERAPISTS:
Greg Stewart - Physiotherapist at BeenleighGreg Stewart - Physiotherapist
Greg Stewart has a Degree in Biomedical Science (Hons) from Griffith University and Masters of Physiotherapy Studies (MPhtySt) from the University of Queensland. Greg is one of the senior physiotherapists at Core and in 2015 has become an executive partner of the Core Healthcare Group. Working in private practice and hospital settings since 2007, Greg has extensive clinical experience in working with common acute, chronic and complex musculoskeletal, neurological, respiratory, chronic pain and orthopaedic conditions.

Greg strongly believes in active rehabilitation with a strong focus on empowerment and self-management strategies. He utilises a lot of hands-on manual therapy and joint mobilisation techniques, often combined with dry needling and trigger point therapy. He also has a strong passion for exercise based injury rehabilitation using both gym and pilates exercise programs to achieve optimal outcomes. Greg is involved as both a presenter and injury management advisor for the Core Specialist Pain and Back Rehabilitation Programs.
Donna McCook – Physiotherapist | Exercise Physiologist at BanyoDonna McCook – Physiotherapist | Exercise Physiologist
Donna McCook has over 20 years of clinical experience in musculoskeletal physiotherapy and rehabilitation and has dual post graduate qualifications in both Physiotherapy and Exercise Physiology.

Along with acute injury management, her clinical focus is in back pain and spinal rehabilitation, and has done advanced post graduate study and research in the same area looking at muscle changes associated with injury. Through this, Donna works with a lot of pre and post operative spinal clients, and continues to have great results in stubborn back pain presentations that have failed to respond to normal treatment and care.

Donna also specialises in shoulder treatment, offering clinical diagnosis, pre and post operative care and rehabilitation, and often takes her clients through to high levels of functional fitness to return to work in heavy industries. Her background has also consisted of teaching and lecturing - nationally and internationally, having presented a range of seminars and lectures, including at international conferences over the past decade.
Drew Singleton - Consultant Pain Management Physiotherapist at Mermaid BeachDrew Singleton - Consultant Pain Management Physiotherapist Founder and Managing Director of Core Healthcare Group, and the Clinical Coordinator of Core's Occupational Rehabilitation Programs. Drew is a Consultant Pain Management Physiotherapist with fifteen years clinical experience in private practice, focusing on the management of patients presenting with complex musculoskeletal injuries, and persistent pain presentations. In his role as Managing Director of Core Healthcare Group, Drew has established and developed strategic rehabilitation partnerships with several middle and large scale organisations including WorkCover QLD, The Australian Defence Force, Toll Holdings, Wesfarmers Group, Sonic Healthcare, Australia Post, James Hardie, Medibank Health Solutions and Queensland University of Technology. Drew holds a Post-Graduate Masters of Medicine (Pain Management) and Graduate Diploma of Applied Finance; has been a Guest Lecturer at University of Queensland, and Clinical Mentor for Physiotherapy Students from Griffith University and Bond University.
Amara Thomson - Physiotherapist at Beenleigh Amara Thomson - Physiotherapist
Amara has completed her Masters of Physiotherapy Studies at the University of Queensland in 2015. Prior to this she completed a Bachelor of Exercise and Sport Science majoring in Clinical Exercise Physiology. She is now an ESSA Accredited Exercise Physiologist and has two years of clinical experience within this field where she has worked as a group exercise instructor. Amara, as one of our junior staff members will be mentored by our senior team as she develops her clinical niche over the coming years, and brings a high level of clinical knowledge to our clinical group.

Areas of interest: Sports Rehab, Womens Health, Prenatal/Postnatal treatment and rehab, Chronic Work Related Injuries, Knee related Injuries, Post-orthopaedic Rehab
Lisa Fox - Exercise Physiologist at BanyoLisa Fox- Exercise Physiologist

Lisa is an ESSA accredited Exercise Physiologist having graduated from The University of Auckland in 2007 with an undergraduate degree in Sport and Exercise Science and post graduate degree in Exercise Rehabilitation. While working in private physio clinics in Auckland, Lisa became interested in all types of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular rehabilitation in addition to chronic pain conditions. She has also had extensive experience in post breast cancer rehabilitation, mainly utilising Pilates as an excellent mind-body exercise tool.

Lisa has 10 years experience teaching Clinical Pilates having trained with Polestar Pilates in NZ. This comprehensive course was specifically tailored to rehabilitation and is only available to accredited health professionals. In addition to this Pilates Instructor training, Lisa has attended numerous courses, workshops and conferences to continue and further her Pilates and Exercise Physiology training. Lisa also has a strong gym background having started gym training at 11 years of age. She has gained interest in the last few years in running and endurance sports and completed her first marathon this year.
Brian Neave- Physiotherapist at CorindaBrian Neave - Physiotherapist
Brian graduated from Brigham Young University- Hawaii (BYUH) in 2012 with a Bachelor of Science in Exercise and Sports Science. His great passion of Physiotherapy, led to the completion of his Master of Physiotherapy Studies at the University of Queensland, graduating in December of 2016.

Brian first gained exposure to physiotherapy as a volunteer in both the private sector and hospital settings, while completing his bachelor’s degree. As part of his Masters and clinical education, Brian gained hands on clinical exposure in Musculoskeletal, Neurological, Cardiorespiratory and Orthopaedic physiotherapy. It was during this time that he also worked for a large private physiotherapy group. As a result, Brian expanded his knowledge and experience with various client populations, and musculoskeletal/sports injuries. Due to his Exercise Science and sporting background, Brian’s special interests are in musculoskeletal injury management and prevention. Other areas of interest include work related injuries, knee and ankle injuries and Military Personnel rehabilitation. Brian is thrilled to begin his career with Core Healthcare Group, and share in their vision to empower his patients in overcoming their physical limitations.

In his spare time, Brian enjoys being involved in physique bodybuilding, playing sports and traveling. He is eager to serve the community by providing rehabilitative care as part of the team at Core.
Nick Dodemont - Physiotherapist at BeenleighNick Dodemont - Physiotherapist
Nick received his Bachelor of Physiotherapy from the University of Queensland graduating in 2011. He has a strong sporting background having previously worked as a physiotherapist to the Brisbane Roar FC before heading to England to work with one of the world largest football teams based in London. Prior to joining CORE in early 2014, Nick worked extensively in the construction industry field of occupational physiotherapy as the head physiotherapist on the largest construction site in Australia and one of the largest in the world.

Nick's special interests include sports rehabilitation and occupational rehabilitation. Able to work on all areas, he has a keen interest in necks, low backs and knees and their rehabilitation from initial onset through to higher level gym programs and return to sport and work.
Jon O’Dwyer - Exercise Physiologist at BeenleighJon O’Dwyer - Exercise Physiologist
Jonathan completed his combined bachelor of Human Movements (BAppliSci (HMS)) and Business Management (BBusMgmt) at QUT in 2005. He is an Accredited Exercise Physiologist (AEP) and a Tactical Strength & Conditioning Coach (TSASCA) with over 10 years of experience working in rehabilitation, athletic and normal population settings.

Jon is an integral member of Core’s injury rehabilitation team using exercise prescription to correct or re-establish proper movement patterning; utilise graded strength programs to improve load tolerances and develop work hardiness; and to teach effective lift and load strategies for industry specific work duties.

Jon also has significant experience with exercise prescription for people suffering from metabolic (such as diabetes and obesity) and musculoskeletal (including arthritis and osteoporosis) conditions.